Wednesday, 21 September 2016

“Hearing of Faith”

“This only I want to learn from you: did you receive the spirit out of works of law or out of hearing of faith? Are you so senseless? Having begun [in] spirit, are you now being perfected [in] flesh?” (Galatians 3:2-3).1
     The readers had apparently discounted much of what they had originally learned from Paul, so now he (sarcastically) wants to “learn” from them. The questions asked (in view of what is said later in the epistle) indicate they had been led to believe that in order to be spiritually “perfected,” one must submit to the Jewish rite of circumcision (cf. Acts 15:1, 5, 24; Phil. 3:2-3), along with other ritualistic “works of law,” like food restrictions (2:12) and special days (4:9-11). Paul considers such an idea absurd. 
     He wants them to remember the beginning of their Christian experience (cf. 1 Cor. 2:1-5; 2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thess. 1:5; 2:13). What did circumcision (or any other “works of law”) have to do with it? Their initial reaction to the gospel is described here as akoē pisteōs (“hearing of faith”). Unfortunately, the significance of this expression is all but lost in English translation. Surely more than merely receiving audible sounds is in view (cf. Matt. 13:13-17; 1 Thess. 2:13; Jas. 1:22-25).
     The sense is much clearer in light of the parallel idiom in Romans 1:5 and 16:26, hupakoē pisteōs (“obedience of faith”). Both akoē and hupakoē (hupō [‘by’] + akouō [‘hear’] = to give ear, hearken, obey) reflect the Hebrew sense of שָׁמַע (shema), i.e. “responsive hearing” (cf. Ex. 24:7; Deut. 31:11-13; Rom. 10:16-17).2 The idiomatic phrase “hearing of faith” is clearly an allusion to receptive and responsive hearing, i.e. obedient faith.
--Kevin L. Moore

Endnotes:
     1 Author’s own translation. In the absence of qualifying prepositions, an important question here is how to understand the use of the dative nouns pneumati (“spirit”) and sarki (“flesh”). Often the dative of means is inferred and translated as “by the Spirit” and “by the flesh” (ESV, NASB), assuming pneuma is in reference to God’s Spirit. However, other uses of the dative are just as plausible, e.g., the dative of reference (“with respect to spirit/flesh”), or the dative of sphere (“in the realm of spirit/flesh”), or the dative of rule (“according to spirit/flesh”). In view of the repeated contrast in Galatians between the spiritual and the physical (3:2-5, 14; 4:6-7, 23-31; 5:5, 13, 16-25; 6:1, 8, 12-15), these datives are taken here as representing the dative of manner, conveying the way in which the verbal action is performed and answering the questions: how have you begun and how are you being perfected? (See D. B. Wallace, Greek Grammar: Beyond the Basics 153-71; R. A. Young, Intermediate NT Greek 49-51).
     2 See W. Wilson, Old Testament Word Studies 211-12; J. D. G. Dunn, Theology of Galatians 360-61 n. 107.

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Wednesday, 14 September 2016

Paul’s Thorn in the Flesh

     In the twelfth chapter of 2 Corinthians, Paul speaks of “visions and revelations of the Lord” (v. 1) and briefly describes a remarkable heavenly experience (vv. 2-4). He then confesses, “that I should not be exalted by the surpassing excellence of the revelations, a thorn in the flesh was given to me …” (v. 7a).1 It is depicted here as a “messenger” [aggelos] of Satan, the purpose of which, “that it might maltreat [kolaphizō] me that I should not become exalted” (v. 7b). Paul pleaded with the Lord three times that it might be taken away (v. 8), yet it persisted.
     A “thorn” [skolops]2 signifies a sharp affliction, while “flesh” is indicative of something physical (cf. 2 Cor. 5:16; 10:2-3; 11:18). This follows the lengthy account of Paul’s vexations that included beatings, imprisonments, stoning, and various perils (11:23-26). As Satan’s aggelos, readers are reminded of the preceding warnings about “false apostles” (11:13) exposed as masquerading “servants” of Satan (11:15), who himself masquerades as an aggelos of light (11:14). Moreover, these troublemakers were prone to violence (11:20), and the word used here for the maltreatment inflicted on Paul is kolaphizō, which literally means to “strike with the fist” (cf. 1 Cor. 4:11).3
     Contextually, therefore, Paul’s “thorn in the flesh” seems to be a veiled allusion to the incessant opposition he was facing, particularly “persecutions … for Christ” (12:10; cf. 1:8-10; 7:5; 4:8-12; 6:4-9; 11:23-26). This interpretation is consistent with similar imagery in the OT (Num. 33:55; Josh. 23:13; Ezek. 28:24) and is confirmed by what is known about the persistent challenges he endured throughout his ministry (see Acts 9:16, 23, 29; 13:8, 45, 50; 14:2, 5, 19, 22; 15:1-2; 16:19-24, 37, 39; 17:5, 13, 32; 18:6, 12; 19:9, 23-31; 20:23, 29-31; 21:11, 27-33; 22:22, 25; 23:2, 10, 12; 24:27; 25:2-3; 26:21; 28:17, 30; 1 Cor. 15:30; Gal. 5:11; 1 Tim. 1:20; 2 Tim. 2:17; 4:14; cf. Rom. 5:3; 8:35-36).
     Other suggestions have included some type of physical malady (cf. Gal. 1:13), such as headaches, malaria, epilepsy, poor eyesight (cf. Gal. 1:15; 6:11), or a speech impediment (cf. 1 Cor. 2:1-4; 2 Cor. 10:10); perhaps a psychological disorder. At the end of the day, the observation of P. E. Hughes is worth noting: “the plain fact is that it is impossible to escape from the realm of conjecture, which is by its nature the realm of inconclusiveness. Presumably those to whom the Apostle wrote knew well enough the character of this particular infirmity with which he was afflicted, but there is an absence of any firm tradition which might enable us to identify it” (Second Corinthians 442).
     “And [the Lord] said to me, ‘My grace is sufficient for you; for the power is perfected in weakness’” (2 Cor. 12:9a). In the Lord’s response to Paul, the verb arkeō (“suffice”) in the Greek text is the first word of the sentence, placing emphasis on the sufficiency of divine grace. Though employed with a variety of nuances, “grace” has a heavy emphasis in Paul’s writings, particularly in the letters sent to Corinth.4 As he has stated earlier, “But [by the] grace of God I am what I am, and his grace to me has not been worthless, but I labored more abundantly than all of them, yet not I but the grace of God that [was] with me” (1 Cor. 15:10).
     “Most gladly, therefore, I will rather boast in my weaknesses, that the power of Christ might dwell upon me” (2 Cor. 12:9b). This “boasting” started at 11:16, in response to unjustified attacks, and “weakness” was introduced at 10:10 as an insult from antagonists. But Paul has shown it to be a virtue in the Lord’s service (11:21, 29, 30; 12:5, 9, 10; 13:3, 4, 9). Divine power is more clearly evident in the face of human frailty (see 3:5; 4:7; 6:7; 13:4; cf. 1 Cor. 2:1-5).
     “Therefore I am well pleased in weaknesses, in insults, in hardships, in persecutions, and difficulties for Christ; for when I might be weak, then I am strong” (12:10). This strength-out-of-weakness paradox clashes with man’s infatuation with achievement, prosperity, status, notability, power, and success. Nevertheless, adversity is inevitable for everyone in this imperfect world, and especially for servants of Christ (John 16:33; Acts 14:22; 2 Tim. 3:12). Paul, through his “thorn in the flesh,” teaches us that humility and greater dependence on God are constructive benefits to be appreciated and utilized. Let us be thankful, therefore, no matter what challenges we face, that we still have access to the same source of comfort and strength!
--Kevin L. Moore

Endnotes:
     1 Scripture quotations are the author’s own translation.
     2 This is the only occurrence of the word skolops in the NT. It refers to anything with a sharp point that causes pain, like a stake, thorn, or splinter. See Num. 33:55; Ezek. 28:24; Hos. 2:6 (LXX).
     3 The present tense indicates ongoing abuse (see also Matt. 26:67; 1 Pet. 2:20).
     4 Charis (“grace”) appears 156 times in the Greek NT; 100 times in Paul, and 28 times in the Corinthian correspondence: 1 Cor. 1:3, 4; 3:10; 10:30; 15:10; [15:57; 16:3]; 16:23; 2 Cor. 1:2, 12, 15; [2:14]; 4:15; 6:1; 8:1, 4, 6, 7, [16], 19; 9:8, 14, [15]; 12:9; 13:14.


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Wednesday, 7 September 2016

Who is “Anointed” in 2 Corinthians 1:21?

     In 2 Cor. 1:17-22, the unexpected change in Paul’s travel plans left him susceptible to criticisms of indecisiveness, unreliability, and dishonesty (1:17). But he reassures the Corinthians that he is not as fickle and inconsistent as some may have charged; he is not in the habit of making contradictory and untruthful statements, like “Yes and No” at the same time (1:17a-19). Just as God is faithful (1:18a), Paul, Silvanus (a.k.a. Silas), and Timothy – the three missionaries who first preached “God’s Son, Jesus Christ” in Corinth (1:19a; cf. Acts 18:5) – proved themselves as men of integrity and faithfulness (cf. 1 Thess. 2:1-13). They communicated a positive (“Yes”) message “in him [Christ]” (1:19b); God’s promises are affirmative (“Yes”) “in him [Christ]” (1:20a) and “amen” (an affirmation of truth = “so be it” or “truly”) “in him [Christ]” (1:20b), “for the glory of God through us” (1:20c) – not self-promoters but genuinely seeking to honor God – and God is confirming “us” [the teachers] with “you” [the Corinthian recipients] “in Christ” (1:21a).
     Furthermore, God is the one having anointed [χρίω]1 “us” (1:21b), and the one having sealed [σφραγίζω]2 “us,” and the one having given “us” the Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee [ἀρραβών]3 (1:22) – contextually applicable to Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy (1:19) as distinct from “you” the Corinthian audience.    
     Attempting to identify those to whom these contrasting pronominal references apply, a number of commentators argue for nuances that fluctuate back and forth, particularly at 1:21-22. But this significantly disrupts the flow of thought and unnecessarily obscures an otherwise cohesive presentation. Since mentioning names is less common in 2 Corinthians than in other Pauline texts, the explicit naming of Paul, Timothy, and Silvanus (1:1, 19) is not without significance in the context of the forty-seven first person plurals in chapter 1. Although three of these betray an inclusive meaning (1:2, 3, 14c),4 the rest are distinguished from “you” and almost certainly do not apply to the readers.
     This is the only occurrence in Paul’s writings of the verb χρίω (“anoint”), and elsewhere in the NT it is always applied to Christ [Χριστός = Anointed One] (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; 10:38; Heb. 1:9). Whatever the anointing is, it is something that God has done for these first-century evangelists in conjunction with divine confirmation, sealing, and impartation of the Spirit.
     Christ had been “anointed” with the Spirit, enabling him to preach the gospel [εὐαγγελίζω = “announce glad tidings”] and to heal (Luke 4:18; Acts 10:38; cf. Isa. 61:1).5 The early disciples were commissioned to proclaim [εὐαγγελίζω] the gospel [εὐαγγέλιον] (Mark 16:15; Acts 5:42; 8:4, 12; etc.) and, in the absence of the compete NT, to confirm the message with accompanying miraculous signs (Mark 16:20; Acts 8:4-8; etc.).
     In 2 Corinthians the readers need to understand [1:13-14] that their first preachers (Paul, Silvanus, Timothy) have divine confirmation via God’s Spirit (1:21), irrespective of any false allegations against them. They “also” (καί) have been sealed [σφραγίζω – authenticated as belonging to and representing God] (1:22a), like all other Christians (Eph. 1:13; 4:30), and have been given the Spirit in their hearts as a guarantee [ἀρραβών] (1:22b), like all other Christians (2 Cor. 5:5; Eph. 1:14).6
--Kevin L. Moore

Endnotes:
     1 The verb χρίω (“anoint”) appears five times in the NT, and only here (2 Cor. 1:21) in Paul; elsewhere in Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; 10:38; Heb. 1:9, all applied to Christ (the Anointed One). The noun χρίσμα (“anointing”) appears only in 1 John 2:20, 27 (see previous post).
     2 The verb σφραγίζω (to “set a seal upon” and thus to “certify” or “authenticate”) occurs fifteen times in the NT, only once in the literal sense (Matt. 27:66). The metaphorical usage is mostly in John’s writings, esp. in Revelation (John 3:33; 6:27; Rev. 7:3, 4, 5, 8; 10:4; 20:3; 22:10), and four times in Paul (Rom. 15:28; 2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13; 4:30).
     3 The noun ἀρραβών (an earnest, pledge, down-payment, security, guarantee) is employed in the NT only in the Pauline writings (2 Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:14).
     4 Expressions like “our Lord” and “our Father” more naturally express the inclusion of all believers and not just the Corinthians.
     5 In Heb. 1:9 (quotation of Psa. 45:7; cf. Isa. 61:1-3), Christ is metaphorically anointed with “the oil [ἔλαιον] of ecstatic joy [ἀγαλλίασις],” confirming his ministry and the inevitable gladness it brings (cf. Luke 1:14; Acts 2:46; 8:8; Rom. 14:17; Gal. 5:22; 1 Thess. 2:20).
     6 See God's Indwelling Spirit 

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