Wednesday, 28 February 2018

Have No Fellowship With the Unfruitful Works of Darkness: a Closer Look at Ephesians 5:11

The Immediate Context (Eph. 5:1-7)
     In v. 3 of Ephesians 5 the apostle has written, “but illicit sex and all impurity or greed must not even be named among you, as also is proper for those sanctified.”1 Such lifestyles are antithetical to walking in love as imitators of God (vv. 1-2), and Paul goes on to list other ungodly acts, such as vulgarity, foolish talk, and crude jesting, which ought to be replaced with thanksgiving (v. 4). The nouns paralleling the verbal forms noted above are then employed, with the added “idolater” (v. 5). Those engaged in such misconduct are excluded from the promised inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.
     To avoid deception and the resulting divine wrath, “do not be partakers with” the sons of disobedience (vv. 6-7). Paul uses the plural form of summétochos, found only twice in the NT, here and earlier in 3:6 in the positive sense of Gentiles, as joint-heirs in one body, being co-partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel. Any alliances involving conduct that would jeopardize this new partnership in Christ Jesus must be avoided (see further on v. 11).
Walk in the Light (Eph. 5:8-10)
     As a reminder of “then” as compared to “now” (cf. 2:1-22), Paul writes, “for you were once darkness, but now light in [the] Lord; walk as children of light” (v. 8). Life prior to receiving God’s grace was characterized by spiritual “darkness” [skótos, cf. v. 11; 6:12] but now “light in [the] Lord” (cf. 4:18-24; Acts 26:18; Rom. 13:12; 2 Cor. 6:14; Col. 1:13; 1 Thess. 5:5; 1 Pet. 2:9). The term “light” [phōs] occurs five times in this section (vv. 8[x2], 9, 13[x2]). God is light (1 John 1:5), a symbol of his glory and majesty (1 Tim. 6:16) and the truth he reveals (Psa. 119:105; Prov. 6:23). Therefore, Paul says, “walk” [peripatéō]  accordingly – the sixth time this idiom is employed in the letter alluding to lifestyle or manner of life. Having previously walked “in trespasses and sins” (2:2) but now in “good works(2:10), “in a manner worthy of the calling” (4:1), no longer “as the Gentiles walk” (4:17), and in “love” (5:2), readers are here directed to walk as children of light (see also 1 John 1:5-7).  
     Further explanation is given: “for the fruit of the light2 [is] in all goodness and righteousness and truth, discerning what is pleasing to the Lord” (vv. 9-10). The “fruit” [karpós, cf. Gal. 5:22-24] that is produced by or is found in this “light” (cf. Matt. 5:14), as opposed to “the unfruitful works of darkness” (v. 11), is “all” [pásē] “goodness” [agathōsúnē] (a term found nowhere else in Ephesians; cf. Rom. 15:14; Gal. 5:22; 2 Thess. 1:11), and “righteousness” [dikaiosúnē] (cf. Eph. 4:24; 6:14; cp. 6:1), and “truth” [alētheia] (cf. Eph. 1:13; 4:21, 24, 25; 6:14).
     The verb dokimázō (“discern,” ESV; “finding out,” NKJV; “trying to learn,” NASB; “proving,” ASV, KJV) means to “test,” “examine,” or “prove.”3 Since God’s will has been revealed (Eph. 1:9, 17),4 what pleases him can therefore be known and understood (Eph. 5:17)5 as we obey what he has revealed (Eph. 6:6).6 The primary aim of pleasing God was embraced and taught by Jesus (Matt. 5:16; John 8:29), Paul and his companions (2 Cor. 5:9; Gal. 1:10; Col. 1:9-10; 3:20; 1 Thess. 2:4, 6; 4:1; 2 Tim. 2:15), the inspired writer of Hebrews (Heb. 13:16), and the apostle John (1 John 3:22).
The Christian Example (Eph. 5:11)
     Now Paul instructs his readers, “and have no participation with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather also expose [them]” (v. 11). Reaffirming the sentiment of v. 7, the present [continual] imperative “have no participation with” employs the verbal sugkoinōnéō, meaning to “participate with someone or be connected with something” (cf. Phil. 4:14; Rev. 18:4). The corresponding noun sugkoinōnos means “joint-partaker, co-sharer” (Rom. 11:17; 1 Cor. 9:23; Phil. 1:7; Rev. 1:9), with similar ideas conveyed (minus the sun- [“with”] prefix) by the verbal koinōneō (to “share”), and the noun koinōnos (“partner, sharer”). 
     Another cognate is koinōnia (often rendered “fellowship”), involving a relationship that has agreement, commonality, unity of mind and purpose, along with spiritual, mental, and participatory alliance (cf. Col. 3:2; 1 John 2:15; cp. 2 Cor. 6:14-16).7 Biblical “fellowship” is not merely social activity but entails a spiritual bond. It is something we either have or do not have based upon our relationship with the Lord.
     The exhortation here is to “Take no part in” (ESV), “have no fellowship with” (ASV, KJV),  “Do not participate in” (NASB), “Have nothing to do with” (NIV) “the unfruitful works of darkness,” i.e., the illicit conduct of vv. 3-5 (N.B. v. 7), the opposite of “the fruit of light” (v. 9). Paul is not telling his readers to dissociate from immoral people (“since then you would need to go out of the world,” 1 Cor. 5:9-13; cf. 7:12-13; 10:27); rather, do not participate in their immoral activities.
     Simply avoiding involvement in these sinful works is not all that is expected; “but rather also expose [them].” The verb elégchō could mean either “rebuke” or “reprove” (ASV, KJV) or “expose” (CSB, ESV, ISV, NASB, NET, NIV, NKJV, N/RSV). W. R. Nicoll argues for “oral reproof,” commenting, “these Christians were not at liberty to deal lightly with such sins, or connive at them, or be silent about them, but had to speak out against them and hold them up to rebuke, with the view of bringing their heathen neighbours to apprehend their turpitude and forsake them” (Expositors Greek Testament 357). On the other hand, J. A. Robinson, based on what immediately follows in the text, believes “it is best to interpret the word in the sense of ‘to expose’ [cf. John 3:20] …. With this interpretation we give unity to the whole passage” (Ephesians [2nd ed.] 200). While the importance of verbal rebuke cannot be discounted (cf. 1 Tim. 5:20; Tit. 2:15), in view of the darkness-light antithesis, the expression here would communicate the thought of “bringing to light.”
     Considering the inappropriateness of even talking about certain offenses (v. 12), H. C. G. Moule suggests the Christian response “was to come more through a holy life, and less through condemnatory words” (Ephesians 132). M. R. Weed observes further, “The exposure suggested is that brought about by the penetrating redemptive effect of the Christian life which reveals or illumines evil practices just as light silently penetrates the darkness” (Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon LWC 11:176). A related nuance harmonizing both meanings would be to “enlighten” those engaged in sinful behavior.8
Conclusion
     Although Ephesians 5:11 is often used as a blanket proof-text to oppose a wide range of perceived misbehavior in the 21st-century church (see previous post), contextually Paul is encouraging his mid-first-century Ephesian readers not to participate in the sinful behaviors of the pagan world in which they live. The modern-day application would be the same.
--Kevin L. Moore

Endnotes:
     1 Unless otherwise noted, scripture quotations are the author’s own translation. The rendering “sexual immorality” in many versions is somewhat vague and does not fully convey the sense of the more precise expression porneía. The noun pórnos (lit. a male prostitute) is employed in the NT of anyone engaging in illicit sex, i.e., a fornicator. The noun porneía applies to any type of illicit sexual intercourse, i.e., fornication. Porneía is any kind of sexual intercourse that is not within the context of a divinely approved marriage (cf. Heb. 13:4).
     2 Instead of the phrase tou phōtòs (“of the light”), the Byzantine Majority Text reads tou pneúmatos (“of the spirit”); cp. Gal. 5:22. The latter reading is found in the majority of manuscripts, including the oldest (P46), whereas the NA28/UBS5 reading is supported by the immediate context and most ancient versions.
     3 Luke 12:56; 14:19; Rom. 1:28; 2:18; 12:2; 14:22; 1 Cor. 3:13; 11:28; 16:3; 2 Cor. 8:8, 22; 13:5; Gal. 6:4; Eph. 5:10; Phil. 1:10; 1 Thess. 2:4; 5:21; 1 Tim. 3:10; 1 Pet. 1:7; 1 John 4:1.
     4 See also John 6:39-40; Col. 4:12; 1 Thess. 4:3; 5:18; 1 Pet. 2:15; 1 John 5:14.
     5 See also Acts 22:14; Rom. 2:18; 12:2; Col. 1:9; cf. Luke 12:47. Note further the will of God is to be sought (John 5:30).
     6 See also Matt. 7:21; 12:50; Mark 3:35; John 4:34; 6:38; 7:17; 9:31; Acts 13:22; 2 Cor. 8:5; Heb. 10:7, 36; 13:21; 1 Pet. 2:15; 4:2; 1 John 2:17; cf. Matt. 12:31; Luke 12:47.
     7 The noun koinōnia is used in the sense of generosity or selfless giving (2 Cor. 9:13; Heb. 13:16; cf. Eph. 3:9), or a gift or contribution (Rom. 15:26), or participation or sharing in something (2 Cor. 8:4; Phil. 1:5; 3:10; Philem. 6; cf. Acts 2:42; 1 Cor. 10:16), but mostly descriptive of the common type or bond of life that unites certain people together (BAGD 438). In this latter sense koinōnia is used in the NT to describe the close relationship Christians have with God (1 John 1:3, 6; cf. 1 Cor. 1:9; 2 Cor. 13:14; Phil. 2:1) and consequently with one another (1 John 1:3, 7; cf. Gal. 2:9). Only the former makes the latter possible.
     8 Thanks to Jody Apple, in comments made during the Open Forum at the 2018 FHU Lectureship, for this insightful perspective.

Related Posts: “What Does Koinōnia [Fellowship] Really Mean?” <Link>, “The Walking Dead” <Link>, “When a Biblical Text is Misapplied” <Link>.

Related articles: Allen Webster's Why People Don't Understand the Bible

Image credit: https://godsloveneverfails.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rejecting-God.jpg

Wednesday, 21 February 2018

When a Biblical Text is Misapplied: Ephesians 5:11

     When Paul instructs his readers in Ephesians 5:11 to have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, he is not telling them to mark and withdraw from a congregation because their preacher associates with someone who has appeared on the same lectureship with a speaker who is affiliated with a school that is theologically suspect. Irrespective of the congregation, preacher, lectureship, speaker, or school in question, appealing to Ephesians 5:11 to address scenarios like this is to remove the verse from its context and misapply it. Should we stand for truth? Yes. Are we to oppose religious error? Absolutely. But misappropriating a biblical text is itself religious error that must be avoided and opposed.
       Contextually Paul is encouraging his mid-first-century Ephesian readers not to participate in the sinful behaviors of the pagan world in which they live. To obey the directive, we must not engage in “the unfruitful works of darkness,” namely illicit sexual activity and other immoral conduct and speech (vv. 1-7). To extend the application of this text to include situations unrelated to the point Paul is making is to mishandle the word of truth in violation of what the apostle has instructed elsewhere (e.g. 2 Cor. 4:2; 2 Tim. 2:14-16, 23-26). By all means defend sound doctrine, but remember the old adage that a text without a context is a proof-text.
--Kevin L. Moore

*For a more in-depth assessment of this passage, see next week’s post.


Image credit: http://www.basicsofthebible.org/images/Confused.png

Wednesday, 14 February 2018

The Walking Dead

And you were dead in the trespasses and sins in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience—among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body [flesh] and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind” (Eph. 2:1-3).1
     These verses are descriptive of the bad news that makes the gospel [euaggélion] “good news” (1:13; 3:6, 7; 6:15, 19). As one long sentence in the Greek text, the verb (which communicates the good news) is not supplied until v. 5. The former lives of the Ephesians were, for the most part, characterized by pagan idolatry, superstition, and black magic (cf. Acts 19:13-36). Thus they were spiritually “dead.” While physical death is the absence of animated life, being “dead in the trespasses and sins” is to be “destitute of a life that recognizes and is devoted to God” (Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon 423); see also vv. 5, 12; 5:14; John 5:25; Rom. 6:13; Rev. 3:1; cf. Luke 15:24, 32. Physical death is the separation of one’s spirit from the body (Jas. 2:26), whereas spiritual death (the consequence of sin) is the separation of one’s spirit from God (Isa. 59:2).
     The terms “trespasses” [pl. of paráptōma] and “sins” [pl. of hamartía] could be used interchangeably and probably appear together here for emphasis. The former (see also 1:7; 2:5) means to fall away after being close beside; a deviation from truth and uprightness, thus a misdeed. The latter (its only occurrence in Ephesians) refers to missing the mark; it is self-originated and self-empowered rather than originating from and empowered by God (contrast 1:3-19). It is an error of understanding and/or a bad action or evil deed and is always employed in the NT in an ethical sense.
     This is the typical mindset and behavior in which the Ephesians “once walked.” Note: the walking dead! The Hebraic idiom “walk” [peripatéō] means to live or conduct oneself, used repeatedly in Ephesians (2:2, 10; 4:1, 17[x2]; 5:2, 8, 15).2
     This passage is often used as a proof-text by those with a Calvinistic perspective, wherein the pre-Christian state is described as, “by nature children of wrath.” However, the context shows that being spiritually dead is the consequence of “trespasses and sins, in which you once walked” [not inherited]. Accordingly, the Greek term phusis, rendered “nature” here, is not necessarily indicative of something innate but rather “a mode of feeling and acting which by long habit has become nature” (Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon 660). Prior to their conversion to Christ, the Ephesians (like the rest of us) were deserving of God’s wrath because of their habitual practice of sin.

But God, being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which he loved us, even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ—by grace you have been saved—and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, so that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them” (Eph. 2:4-10).
     Grace is a free gift of God (Eph. 2:8; cf. Rom. 3:24; 6:23), but in order for a gift to be of any value, it must be “received.” The Corinthians, for example, had received God’s grace by receiving the gospel (1 Cor. 15:1-2; 2 Cor. 11:7), to which they responded in obedient faith (Acts 18:8; 1 Cor. 12:13). They are then admonished “not to receive the grace of God in vain” (2 Cor. 6:1) by neglecting God-given responsibilities (5:17-21) or by regressing into their former sinful affections (6:12-18).
Conclusion:
     Spiritual life or spiritual death is the choice available to each of us. If we choose the latter by continuing in sin and rejecting God’s gracious gift, we are among the walking dead – void of spiritual life that is purified, illuminated, guided, and invigorated by God. Will you choose to walk among the living, or will you choose to walk among the dead?
--Kevin L. Moore

Endnotes:
     1 Unless otherwise noted, scripture quotations are from the ESV.
     2 See also Gal. 5:16, 25; Rom. 6:4; 8:4; 13:13; 14:15; 2 Cor. 4:2; 5:7; 10:2, 3; 12:18; Phil. 3:17, 18; Col. 1:10; 2:6; 3:7; 4:5; 1 Thess. 2:12; 4:1, 12; 2 Thess. 3:6, 11.


Image credit: http://gzsihai.com/data/out/74/im-500426802.png

Wednesday, 7 February 2018

Anticipating Christ’s Return: Alarming, Confusing, or Comforting? (Part 2)

     When the Lord returns and the dead in Christ rise first (1 Thess. 4:16), what happens next? The description continues: “then we the living ones remaining will be carried off together with them in the clouds for a meeting of the Lord into the air, and so always we will be with the Lord” (1 Thess. 4:17).1 On the question of whether or not Paul and his companions expected to be alive at the Lord’s return, see Did Paul Believe?; for a response to the rapturist interpretation of this text, see No Room for the Rapture.
     It has been suggested that the employment of the term hárpazō (to “carry off” or “snatch away”) is an intentional play on words, seeing that secular writers often spoke of life being “snatched away” by death or fate.2 The present text, therefore, “may be cleverly inverting a common use of harpazō in referring to death: rather than the expected picture of death or fate ‘snatching away’ to hades those who are living, the living ‘will be snatched up’ so that they do not face the last enemy, death” (J. Weima, Thessalonians 332). A. J. Malherbe states further, “The dead in Christ will rise, and their separation from those who were left is overcome as, ironically, they are snatched up together with them” (Thessalonians 276).
     The ascension will be “in [en] the clouds for [eis] a meeting of the Lord into [eis] the air …” The scriptures do not teach that Jesus will ever step foot on this physical earth again.3 The phrases “in the clouds” and “into the air” – the perceived space between the earthly and heavenly realms – parallel the Lord’s ascension and promised return (Acts 1:9-11). “Clouds” in biblical literature often accompany or signify divine presence4 and thus serve as a fitting arena for such “a meeting.” In the next letter to the Thessalonians this theme continues, “… concerning the coming [parousía] of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together unto him” (2 Thess. 2:1).
     All who are in Christ, both living and deceased, “always will be with the Lord.” The natural world is not our permanent home (cf. 2 Pet. 3:10-11; Rev. 20:11). God’s faithful ones are to live with him eternally in the heavenly realm (see 1 Thess. 1:10; cf. Matt. 5:12, 16, 34; 6:19-21). There is a rest spoken of that is yet in the future—something promised that remains to be fully realized (Heb. 3:7–4:11). When Jesus journeyed ahead to prepare a place for his disciples (John 14:2-3), he went beyond the “veil” and penetrated the holiest place to dwell in the presence of God (Heb. 6:19-20; 9:12). This is none other than “heaven itself” (Heb. 9:24). Accordingly, we now have the confident expectation of entering the very same place (Heb. 6:18-19; 10:19-20, 34). It is heaven wherein our names are registered (Heb. 12:23) and in which we have citizenship (Phil. 3:20), reward (Matt. 5:12), hope (Col. 1:5), and an inheritance (1 Pet. 1:3-4). Unlike Israel’s inheritance of a temporal rest, ours is everlasting (Heb. 9:15).
Encouraging Words
     Here is the stated purpose of the foregoing discourse: “Therefore, encourage one another with these words” (1 Thess. 4:18). The aim is not to satisfy curiosity about the particulars of the Lord’s coming, but to provide reassurance about the future of departed loved ones. “The question is, is it any encouragement to us? It can only fail to appear relevant if we approach the passage with a false attitude and with false questions…. If, however, we are to look beneath the traditional superstructure of eschatological imagery, we arrive at the conviction which was uppermost in the apostle’s mind, and which was indeed our Lord’s own concern to show (John xiv.), that those who die in Christ live in Christ …” (W. Neil, Thessalonians 107).
Conclusion
     The most extensive single account in the NT of Christ’s future return (1 Thess. 4:13–5:11) does not attempt to answer all the questions we might have about specific aspects of the event, nor was it intended to spark fanciful interpretations and unending speculations. It is a message of comfort, hope, and reassurance. Let us, therefore, take it no further than its original intent and be encouraged by it.
--Kevin L. Moore

Endnotes:
     1 Unless otherwise noted, scripture quotations are the author’s own translation.
     2 See, e.g., Plutarch, Consolatio ad Apollonium 113C; Lucian, Of Funerals 13; Seneca, On Consolation to Polybius 2.1-8; Cicero, de Divinatione 2.25.
     3 Some premillennialists cite Zech. 14:4, “And in that day his feet shall stand on the Mount of Olives …” But applying this text to the second coming of Christ is to ignore its symbolic (apocalyptic) nature and its fulfillment in less than six centuries after the prophecy was made, not long after Christ’s first advent. This is the same “day of the Lord” spoken of by Joel (1:15; 2:1, 11, 31; 3:14), fulfilled in the NT (Acts 2:16-21); and Malachi (4:1-6), fulfilled in the NT (Luke 1:16-17; Matt. 3:1 ff.). See K. L. Moore, “The Day of the Lord,” Moore Perspective (1 Feb. 2014) <Link>.
     4 Ex. 13:21-22; 14:19-20, 24; 16:10; 19:16-17; Lev. 16:2; Num. 9:15-22; 10:11-12; 1 Kgs. 8:10-12; 2 Chron. 5:13-14; 6:1; Neh. 9:12, 19; Psa. 97:2; Isa. 19:1; Ezek. 1:4-28; Dan. 7:13; Matt. 17:5; Mark 9:7; Luke 9:34-35; 1 Cor. 10:1-2. As a symbol of divine judgment, see Isa. 19:1; Jer. 4:13; Psa. 68:4, 34; 104:3; Matt. 24:30; 26:64; Mark 13:26; 14:62; Luke 21:27; Rev. 1:7; 14:14-16.


Image credit: https://i0.wp.com/www.mikegillespie.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/beinghappy.jpg?fit=2118%2C1418