Lucius Junius Gallio Novatianus (a.k.a. Gallio) began his one-year office as proconsul of Achaia in June 51. An inscription discovered at Delphi and published in 1905 (with additional fragments found and then published in 1970) dates between April and July 52. From this we can deduce that Gallio was the proconsul of Achaia in the previous year (cf. Acts 18:2, 12).
Emperor Claudius had dispelled Jews (including Aquila and Priscilla) from Rome in 49 (his 9th year as emperor). The dating of Claudius’ edict comes primarily from the 5th-century historian Paulus Orosius (Hist. Adv. Pag. 7.6.15-16), and even though there is a degree of uncertainty as to the exactness of this date (cf. J. Murphy-O’Connor, Paul: A Critical Life 9-10), it is consistent with other chronological data (Josephus, Dio Cassius, Suetonius) and is based on historical information available to Orosius that is no longer extant.
Paul and Barnabas met with the apostles and elders in Jerusalem to discuss the circumcision controversy (Acts 15:1 ff.) early in the year 50, fourteen years after Paul’s visit in 36 (Gal. 2:1).1 Afterwards, over the next few months, Paul’s missionary team started churches in the region of Macedonia, viz. in the cities of Philippi, Thessalonica, and Berea, then on to Athens (Acts 16–17).
Paul’s Work in Corinth
The apostle would have arrived in Corinth from Athens around late autumn of the year 50. He labored with Aquila, Priscilla, Silas and Timothy until spring of 52, leaving behind an established Christian community (Acts 18:1-18). After his departure via the seaport of Cenchrea, Paul seems to have had no further communications with the Corinthian brethren until sometime during his three years’ ministry in Ephesus (Acts 20:31; 1 Cor. 16:8).
Paul wrote a letter to the Corinthians in which he warned them not to associate with immoral persons (1 Cor. 5:9), and Timothy was sent to Corinth to remind them of the apostle’s teachings (1 Cor. 4:17). Paul received reports from Chloe’s people of certain disorders among the Corinthians (1 Cor. 1:11), and he welcomed a delegation from Corinth, namely Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus (1 Cor. 16:17), who delivered a letter from the brethren seeking his advice on various questions (1 Cor. 7:1). In response Paul wrote the epistle of 1 Corinthians from Ephesus in the spring of 56 (cf. 1 Cor. 4:19; 16:8).
An unsuccessful attempt had been made to get Apollos to revisit Corinth (1 Cor. 16:12), while Paul was planning to return to Corinth himself (1 Cor. 4:18-19; 11:34; cf. 2 Cor. 11:10; 12:21) to impart “a second blessing [cháris]” (2 Cor. 1:15). This could refer to his next return since the inaugural campaign (cf. 2 Cor. 12:14; 13:2; discussed further below). Another possibility is the fact that two upcoming visits had been planned – one on the way to Macedonia (2 Cor. 1:16a) and the other from Macedonia (v. 16b) – thus the first and second “blessing,” although the first of these did not eventuate.
His initial intention was to stop in Corinth on his way to Macedonia, then revisit the Corinthians on his way from Macedonia to Judea and be assisted by them (2 Cor. 1:16; cf. 1 Cor. 16:6; Acts 19:21). However, for reasons presumably beyond his control, he had to change his travel plans and go to Macedonia first (1 Cor. 16:2-7; cf. 2 Cor. 1:12-24) via Troas (2 Cor. 2:12-13), although he did not want to visit the Corinthians while he was agitated with them (2 Cor. 1:23; 2:1-4; cf. 12:20-21; 13:10).
Titus had been to Corinth and met Paul in Macedonia, reporting on the situation among the Corinthian disciples (2 Cor. 7:5-7, 13-15). From Macedonia (2 Cor. 7:5; 9:2-4) Paul and Timothy wrote 2 Corinthians in the summer and/or autumn of 56. Some interpret the evidence differently and propose three visits and four letters to Corinth (e.g. L. Morris, First Corinthians 22-25; C. Kruse, Second Corinthians 17-25; cf. G. Guthrie, 2 Corinthians 18-32).
Paul states: “this [is the] third [time] I am ready to come to you” (2 Cor. 12:14), and “this [is the] third [time] I am coming to you” (13:1).2 These statements seem to be alluding to: (a) his inaugural visit to Corinth (Acts 18); (b) the intended visit on the way to Macedonia that did not occur (2 Cor. 1:15-17); and (c) the upcoming visit he is planning to make. This conclusion is corroborated by the next statement in 13:2, “I have warned and I am warning, as being present the second [time] and being absent now … if I come again …” This would indicate that Paul had been to Corinth once before (Acts 18), and though his previous plan to return did not eventuate, this letter is a prelude to his upcoming second visit (cf. 2 Cor. 9:1-5; 10:2, 11; 12:20-21; 13:10). Titus and other brothers were sent back to Corinth probably to deliver the letter and to help get the contribution ready which the Corinthians had proposed a year earlier (2 Cor. 8:6-24; 9:2-5; 12:17-18).
Paul’s Return to Corinth
Paul did eventually return to Corinth, spending the three winter months of 56-57 in Greece (Acts 20:2-3), during which time he and Tertius wrote the epistle to the Romans. While it is possible that Paul revisited Corinth after his release from the first Roman imprisonment around 62-64 (cf. 2 Tim. 4:20), this cannot be confirmed.
Paul was not in the habit of making converts and then leaving them to fend for themselves (see They Returned). His documented work in Corinth demonstrates that he invested significant time and energy in fulfilling the great commission by making disciples and establishing congregations with ongoing contact and follow up.
--Kevin L. Moore
1 The question here is whether to understand the three years of Gal. 1:18 and the fourteen years of Gal. 2:1 concurrently or consecutively. Adding the fourteen years to Paul’s initial post-conversion Jerusalem visit does not present any insurmountable chronological difficulties. What creates a greater degree of uncertainty, however, is the ancient practice of counting a portion of the first and last years as a full year in the calculation.
2 Unless otherwise noted, English translation of scripture is the author’s own.
Related Posts: Ancient Corinth
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