Wednesday, 27 January 2021

The Number 666

The number 666 occurs four times in the Bible. In the 10th century BC, Solomon received 666 talents of gold annually (1 Kings 10:14; 2 Chron. 9:13). Four centuries later, among the Jewish exiles who returned from Babylon to the land of Judah, there were 666 from the family of Adonikam (Ezra 2:13). These figures, employed in straightforward historical narratives, are to be taken at face value with no symbolism or underlying meanings intended. However, the same number appearing in the highly symbolic book of Revelation is different. How is it used and what does it mean in Rev. 13:18?1 


The number “seven” is probably the most recognizable symbolic figure in scripture,2  signifying perfection or divine completeness. The number “six” is therefore short of perfection, and by tripling it (666) the symbol of imperfection and fallibility is intensified. 


What it does not mean


Contrary to popular opinion, the number 666 does not represent the Antichrist, the devil, or a particular religious or government official in history. Gematria, the assigning of numerical value to letters of the alphabet, has been applied through the years to the number 666 in numerous attempts to identify a specific individual or organization. Results have included Julius Caesar, Nero Caesar, Domitian, Napoleon, Hitler, Catholicism, Protestantism, modern technology, et al. The problem is, different languages are used (Greek, Latin, Hebrew), different values are assigned to each letter, sometimes titles are added and names misspelled to make it fit, resulting in endless possibilities. The entire process is speculative, inexact, and dubious.


A contextual approach


In Rev. 13:1-10 the sea beast represents the Roman Empire (contextually near the end of the 1st century AD), and the land beast (vv. 11-17) the false religion of the Imperial Cult aligned with the government. Empowered by the dragon (Satan), emperor worship is enforced with violence and sanctions.3 Nevertheless, true “wisdom” and “understanding” assign the number 666 to the conglomerate beast, which “is the number of a man” (v. 18), i.e., imperfect and fallible to the extreme. Despite the exalted claims of deity and mighty displays of power, the ferocious enemy of God’s people (led by “a man” professing to be a god) is far removed from anything truly divine. The cryptic message, hidden to those unfamiliar with the numerical symbolism, was much needed by the late-1st-century persecuted Christians who were tempted to give in to the pressure. Such a reminder offered reassurance and hope.


Modern-day application


There is nothing inherently sinister about the number 666. No need to avoid it or feel compelled to change an address, license plate, or phone number containing the three digits. On the 16th of October 2020 the Tennessee Department of Health reported 666 new cases of Covid-19.4 The exact same figure was reported in South Carolina four days later,5 and in North Carolina a couple of months earlier.6 The only thing this means is that fewer than 667 and more than 665 new cases were reported.


The emblematic message conveyed through this number nearly two millennia ago in Rev. 13:18 is that human beings, earthly governments, false religions, and anti-Christian opponents are fallible and imperfect, irrespective of deceptive appearances and grandiose assertions. God alone is perfect and his word complete and infallible, so trusting and remaining loyal to him is the only way to ensure victory in the end. 


“And I saw something like a sea of glass mingled with fire, and those who have the victory over the beast, over his image and over his mark and over the number of his name …” (Rev. 15:2).7 Whether or not we ever face the same or similar challenges as our 1st-century brethren in Western Asia Minor, the Lord’s promise still holds true: “Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life” (Rev. 2:10c).


--Kevin L. Moore



     1 There is a textual variant in Rev. 13:18 wherein some manuscripts record the number 616 (e.g. the 3rd-century P. Oxy. 4499 or P115, and the 5th-century Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus). However, most modern scholars agree with Irenaeus (ca. 130-202), who regarded this number “spurious” and the result of scribal error. Irenaeus reported that in his day the number 666 was “in all the most approved and ancient copies,” confirmed by men who knew the apostle John personally (Adv. Haer. 5.3.1). Unless otherwise noted, scripture quotations are from the NKJV.

     2 The number “seven” appears in the book of Revelation fifty-four times, alluding to seven churches, spirits, lampstands, stars, angels, seals, horns, eyes, trumpets, thunders, heads, crowns, plagues, bowls, mountains, and kings. The adjective “seventh” occurs five more times, and the amplified figure “seven thousand” once.

     3 If the “right hand” represents physical activity (cf. Judg. 5:26; Neh. 4:23; Psa. 20:6; 60:5; 74:11; 138:7; Lam. 2:4) and the “forehead” mental faculty (cf. Isa. 48:4; Jer. 3:3; Ezek. 3:7), then receiving the mark, number, and name of the beast would symbolize conspicuous allegiance, both in action and in thinking, to the anti-Christian, pagan, ruling power. 

     4 Caleb Wethington, “Tennessee reports 666 new COVID-19 cases,” ABC (16 Oct. 2020), <Link>.

     5 Staff Reports, “666 new cases of coronavirus reported in SC,” SCNOW (20 Oct. 2020), <Link>.

     6 Annette Weston, “NCDHHS reports 666 new COVID-19 cases,” ABC (10 Aug. 2020), <Link>.

     7 In contrast to the evil beast having arisen out of the tumultuous sea (Rev. 13:1), before God’s throne the sea is calm and clear but mingled with the fire of righteous indignation. Those who gain victory over the beast have “harps of God,” a symbol of jubilation and triumph in contrast to the fall of Rome, where the “sound of harpists, musicians, flutists, and trumpeters shall not be heard in you anymore…” (18:22).


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Wednesday, 20 January 2021

The Damascus Road Conversation in Acts 9:5-6?

In the first recorded account of the events leading to Saul’s conversion, the text of Acts 9:5b-6a reads in the NKJV: “‘It is hard for you to kick against the goads.’ So he, trembling and astonished, said, ‘Lord, what do You want me to do?’ Then the Lord said to him…” (also KJV, MEV, JUB, YLT). 

In almost all other English versions these words are omitted in this section of Acts. However, the textual variation does not challenge the historicity of the statements, seeing that Saul’s conversion story is also recounted in chaps. 22 and 26 where the disputed words are included in all versions (22:10a; 26:14b). 


The only question is whether Luke recorded the statements once or twice. When all the information is gathered and harmonized from the three accounts, nothing is lost or gained either way. The full story of the conversion of Saul of Tarsus (a.k.a. the apostle Paul) has been faithfully preserved in Acts 9, 22, and 26. When Saul learned the gospel through Ananias’ teaching, as a penitent baptized believer his sins were washed away (Acts 9:6-18; 22:10-16) by the grace and mercy of God (Eph. 3:7-8; 1 Tim. 1:15-16).


--Kevin L. Moore


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Wednesday, 13 January 2021

The Ethiopian’s Confession in Acts 8:37?

In the account of Philip’s evangelistic encounter with an Ethiopian official, Acts 8:37 reads in the NKJV: “Then Philip said, ‘If you believe with all your heart, you may.’ And he answered and said, ‘I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God’” (also CSB, KJV, MEV, JUB).

Some versions have the verse in [square brackets] in the main text (HCSB, NASB, YLT), while others relegate it to a footnote (ASV, CEB, CEV, CSB, ESV, ISV, NIV, NLT, N/RSV). Some omit the words all together (NET, J. B. Phillips).


The majority of extant Greek manuscripts, including the earliest, do not contain the verse in question.1 It appears in later Greek manuscripts and Latin versions from the 5th century onwards, plus a few other ancient languages.2 Nevertheless, we know the recorded account existed much earlier, as it is included in the Western text tradition and was known by Irenaeus in the 2nd century, Tertullian and Cyprian in the 3rd century, and Ambrosiaster and Ambrose in the 4th century. It is commonly believed that the verse was originally a marginal note that eventually made its way into the main text through the extensive copying process. 

The passage is essentially an extension of v. 12 and corresponds to other scriptures (e.g. Matt. 10:32; Luke 12:8; Rom. 10:9; 1 Tim. 6:12), therefore no fundamental doctrine is lost by its omission or changed by its inclusion. Believing with all your heart is still a prerequisite to baptism and is made known by verbally acknowledging Jesus Christ as God's Son.


--Kevin L. Moore



     1 Even the Byzantine Majority Text (BMT) does not include these words.

     2 See Luke Wayne, “Was Acts 8:37 removed from modern Bibles?” (31 Oct. 2018), CARM <Web>.


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Wednesday, 6 January 2021

Saved Through Childbearing? (1 Timothy 2:15a)

Why did Paul issue the proscription in 1 Timothy 2:11-12 forbidding women to teach or exercise authority over men? Was he a misogynist? Did he think women are inferior to men or incapable of effective teaching? Did the particular cultural environment or unique situation in Ephesus dictate it?1 As we keep reading, the apostle himself explains. 

For Adam was formed first, then Eve; and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. Yet she will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control” (1 Tim. 2:13-15, ESV).


Creation Order


The God-breathed explanation (“For”) is that “Adam was formed first, then Eve.” The stated reason is not a local and temporary social convention but is rooted in the unchangeable order of creation. Woman was created to complement man, not the reverse order (Gen. 2:18; 1 Cor. 11:3, 8-9). Throughout scripture the significance of “firstborn” (preeminence, authority, responsibility) is repeatedly highlighted.2


Consequence of Sin


A secondary reason follows, “and Adam was not deceived [hapatáō], but the woman was deceived [exapatáō], and became a transgressor,” or “fell into transgression” (NASB, NKJV). While it was not necessary for another explanation to have been given, “Paul lets two witnesses speak”3 (note 5:19). 


The verb hapatáō, used passively here of Adam, means to “be deceived, cheated, misled,” whereas exapatáō, used passively of Eve, is an intensified form meaning to “be thoroughly deceived.”4 The first woman stands in a position of “having been” (gégonen, perfect tense of gínomai) “thoroughly deceived” into willful disobedience. Nevertheless, in spite of the transgression, good news is signaled by the contrasting dé (“Yet”) that follows.


Salvation Assured 


The pronominal reference to “she” (v. 15)5 has “the woman” (v. 14) as its nearest antecedent, contextually identified as “Eve” (v. 13), “the mother of all living” (Gen. 3:20). The observation that “she will be saved through childbearing” has generated much confusion and disagreement among interpreters. Unfortunately, the definite article has been left out of the translation, which should read, “she shall be saved through the childbearing” (ERV, emp. added KLM).6


Having alluded to Genesis 3:1-6 (Eve’s deception and transgression), Paul continues with the promises made to the serpent and to Eve that ensued. To the serpent (the devil) Yahweh said, “And I will put enmity between you and the woman, And between your seed [‘offspring’] and her Seed [‘offspring’]; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel” (Gen. 3:15, NKJV).7 To the woman (Eve) Yahweh said, “I will greatly multiply your sorrow and your conception [‘childbearing,’ ESV];8 In pain you shall bring forth children; Your desire shall be for [‘to’ or ‘towards’] your husband, And he shall rule over you” (Gen. 3:16, NKJV).


The atypical reference to the woman’s seed or offspring, which is ordinarily accredited to the man (cf. Gen. 4:25-26; 5:3-32; 9:8-9; 12:7; etc.), appears to be a prophetic allusion to the Messiah, who was “born of woman” (Gal. 4:4) without a human father (Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:18-25).9 Paul’s future tense verb sōthsetai (“she will be saved”), from sōzo,10 could have reference to being “preserved” (NASB) or “delivered” (NET),11 but this verbal is consistently applied in 1 Timothy to spiritual salvation (1:15; 2:4; 4:16), thus reemphasizing what has already been affirmed in 1:15-17 and 2:3-6. 


Setting aside various untenable interpretations, “the childbearing” could be a general allusion to the unique and exclusive destiny and function of the woman. This is not to say every woman must bear a child in order to be saved. Rather, the woman has a special place in God’s design, different from the man, inclusive of childbearing, and she is afforded salvation within the distinctive role more broadly described by Paul in vv. 9-12 (cp. Gen. 3:16).12 While the exact nature of the falsehoods plaguing the Ephesus church at the time is less than explicit, forbidding marriage was an issue (4:3a), and some of the women were being led astray (5:11-15), perhaps disparaging their conventional domestic duties. “It is not through active teaching and ruling activities that Christian women will be saved, but through faithfulness to their proper role, exemplified in motherhood.”13


In the wider context, there appears to be a deeper theological implication (cp. Gen. 3:15). Despite having been thoroughly deceived into transgression, Eve will be saved the same way Paul (1:12-16) and all other human beings (2:3-6) will be saved, “through the childbearing.” Woman was the channel Satan exploited in his attempt to destroy God’s human creation, while God utilized the same means to save humanity. Satan used woman to gain control through sin; God used woman, as the medium of the incarnation, to gain victory through Jesus (Luke 1:26-38; 11:27; Gal. 4:4).


Salvation Qualified


The abrupt transition to the third person plural redirects the focus from the first woman (vv. 13b-15a) back to the nearest conceptual antecedent, “the women” (vv. 9-10): “if they continue...” The conjunction eán (“if”) means the divine plan to save Eve and all others is conditioned upon remaining (abiding, continuing) “in [enfaith and love and holiness, with [metáself-control.” 


Paul seems to have a particular interest in connecting “faith and love,” as here, elsewhere in the letter (1:5, 14; 4:12; 6:11), and throughout his other writings.14 The concept of faith” is heavily emphasized in 1 Timothy (1:2, 4, 5, 14, 19; 2:7, 15; 3:9, 13; 4:1, 6, 12; 5:8, 12; 6:10, 11, 12, 21). Also highlighted in the letter is “love” (1:5, 14; 2:15; 4:12; 6:11), the noun agápē appearing in Paul’s writings (75 times) more than any other NT author. 

Another requisite is “holiness” (or “sanctification,” ASV), the only occurrence of the noun hagiasmós in this letter, employed elsewhere in Paul (Rom. 6:19, 22; 1 Cor. 1:30; 1 Thess. 4:3, 4, 7; 2 Thess. 2:13) and in the NT (Heb. 12:14; 1 Pet. 1:2) but not in secular writings. It refers to the process of making or becoming holy, i.e., “wholly set apart for God and separated by life and conduct from the unbelieving world …”15


Finally, reiterating the accompanying adornment of v. 9, “with self-control” [sōphrosú], variously rendered “self-restraint” (NASB), “sobriety” (ASV), “propriety” (NIV), “good sense” (CSB). Accordingly, the Christian woman ought to be sensitive to “the hidden person of the heart, with the incorruptible ornament of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is very precious in the sight of God” (1 Pet. 3:3-5). She “cares about the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and in spirit” (1 Cor. 7:34). 




The Bible has consistently clashed with the secular world’s entrenched standards, both past and present. The cultural pendulum swings from one extreme to the other, whereas the biblical model of male-female complementarity goes all the way back to creation and remains unchanged. According to God’s design men and women are different, though neither gender is superior to the other (Gal. 3:26-29). Both are equally valued and mutually dependent (1 Cor. 11:11; 12:18-25), and the Creator has assigned each a specific role (1 Cor. 11:3; 14:33-35). To exhibit the mind of Christ and to follow his example of humility and meekness is to utilize one’s particular situation, within prescribed scriptural boundaries, to the glory of God. 


--Kevin L. Moore



     1 Glenn Rogers alleges that the reason is “not because there was anything inherently wrong with women teaching men, but because of the unique situation (which we do not fully understand) here in Ephesus” (The Bible Culturally Speaking [By the Author: Mission and Ministry Resources, 2004]: 210). Others are more confident in their explanation, affirming that the unique situation in Ephesus involved cult prostitution (cf. Sharon H. Gritz, Paul, Women Teachers, and the Mother Goddess at Ephesus: A Study of 1 Timothy 2:9-15 in Light of the Religious and Cultural Milieu of the First Century [Lanham; NY; London: University Press of America, 1991]: 39-40), but there is no historical justification for this baseless assertion (see esp. S. M. Baugh, “Cult Prostitution in New Testament Ephesus: A Reappraisal,” in Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42:3 [1999]: 443-60).

     2 Gen. 4:4; 27:1-4, 19, 29; 29:26; 43:33; 48:18; 49:3; Ex. 4:22; 13:2; 22:29; Num. 3:13; 8:17; Deut. 15:19; 21:17; 2 Chron. 21:3; Psa. 89:27; et al.

     3 R. C. H. Lenski, Interpretation of St. Paul’s Epistles … to Timothy (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2001): 567. Note also Deut. 17:6; 19:15; Matt. 18:16; John 8:17; 2 Cor. 13:1; Heb. 10:28.

     4 The same intensified form is used in 2 Cor. 11:3 when recalling the same incident, “But I fear lest somehow, as the serpent thoroughly deceived [exapatáōEve in his craftiness, your minds might be corrupted from the simplicity and the purity in Christ” (author’s own translation). Reference to “the serpent” is a metaphorical allusion to Satan (2 Cor. 2:11; 11:14; 12:7; cf. Rev. 12:9; 20:2), and the episode recounted is the deception of Eve by the serpent in the Garden of Eden (Gen. 3:1-15).

     5 Some English versions unnecessarily change and thus distort the reference to “women” (CEV, NASB, NIV, NLT). The pronominal “she” is inherent in the future passive indicative verb sōthsetai, which is singular (“she shall be saved”) not plural.

     6 Not “through the bearing of children” (NASB), “through having children” (GNT), or “by having children” (CEV).

     7 The serpent’s “seed” or “offspring” would be all who reject God’s will and thus become the devil’s progeny (John 8:44; Eph. 2:2-3; 1 John 3:10; cf. Matt. 12:30). Christ (the woman’s “seed” or “offspring”) was bruised (NRSV, “strike”) when he became the offering for sin (Isa. 53:5, 10). A wound to the heel is painful and debilitating but is not permanently fatal. Christ’s momentary suffering, inflicted by the serpent, was the means through which Christ struck the serpent’s head, destroying the devil’s power of sin and death (Heb. 2:14; 1 John 3:8). A wound to the head (especially to a serpent’s head) is terminal. See also Rom. 16:20; Rev. 12:1-17; 20:2, 10; cf. Psa. 68:21; 91:13.

     8 The Hebrew noun herayon refers to “conception” or “pregnancy” but is always connected in scripture to “childbirth” (Gen. 3:16; Ruth 4:13; Hos. 9:11).

     9 The messianic “seed” promise began in Gen. 3:15, was carried throughout the OT (Gen. 22:18; 28:14; etc.), and was fulfilled in Christ (Gal. 3:16).

     10 The verbal sōzo occurs 108 times in the NT, with various nuances including “save,” “deliver,” “rescue,” “preserve,” “heal.”

     11 This is the sense of the word in 2 Tim. 4:18 (cf. also Acts 27:20, 31), but not Paul’s typical usage (note 2 Tim. 2:9).

     12 Ann L. Bowman comments, “women will enter into eschatological salvation, with its accompanying rewards, through faithfulness to their proper role, exemplified in motherhood and in godly living generally” (“Women in Ministry: An Exegetical Study of 1 Timothy 2:11-15,” BSac 149.594 [April-June 1992]: 208).

     13 Douglas J. Moo, “1 Timothy 2:11-15: Meaning and Significance,” Trinity Journal 1 (1980): 71. See also Andreas J. Köstenberger, “Ascertaining Women’s God-ordained Roles,” Bulletin for Biblical Research 7 (1997): 107-44.

     14 1 Cor. 13:2, 13; 2 Cor. 8:7; Gal. 5:6; Eph. 1:15; 3:17; 6:23; Col. 1:4; 1 Thess. 1:3; 3:6; 5:8; 2 Thess. 1:3; 2 Tim. 1:13; 2:22; 3:10; Tit. 2:2; 3:15; Philem. 5. Note also the negative linkage in 1 Tim. 6:10.

     15 Raymond C. Kelcy, The Letters of Paul to the Thessalonians (Abilene: ACU Press, 1984): 83.


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